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Instructional Design

Instructional design is the practice of arranging media (communication technology) and content to help learners and teachers transfer knowledge most effectively. The process consists broadly of determining the current state of learner understanding, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some media-based "intervention" to assist in the transition. Ideally the process is informed by pedagogically tested theories of learning and may take place in student-only, teacher-led or community-based settings. The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed.

Much of the foundation of the field of instructional design was laid in World War II, when the U.S. military faced the need to rapidly train large numbers of people to perform complex technical tasks, from field-stripping a carbine to navigating across the ocean to building a bomber.

Drawing on the research and theories of B.F. Skinner on operant conditioning, training programs focused on observable behaviors. Tasks were broken down into subtasks, and each subtask treated as a separate learning goal. Training was designed to reward correct performance and remediate incorrect performance. Mastery was assumed to be possible for every learner, given enough repetition and feedback. After the war, the success of the wartime training model was replicated in business and industrial training, and to a lesser extent in the primary and secondary classroom. [1]


eLearning with SMART desks

Computer Classroom Furniture Considerations

Room arrangement flexibility is usually better than a fixed formation. A fixed arrangement should allow focused sight lines for instruction and small groups for interaction for a blended learning approach.

A flexible arrangement might include tables with casters for mobility and the use of WiFi to reduce the need to be tethered.

Mobile technology, such as laptops, iPods and PDAs might be considered, along with docking for these devices in the furniture, if only for charging.


Instructional design. (2008, January 3). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15:45, January 4, 2008, from
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